Sunday, November 28, 2010
KJ4RXY - Stephen
W4DJW - Dave
KJ4SVH - Justin
NY4G - Ariel
Dave W4DJW had a treat in that he was able to stream the activity on his Flex radio monitor through livestream.com/w4djw
It was a sparsely attended net perhaps due to the holiday. We did not go through any of the extra class questions and may cover it next week.
Found a great club - specially for new CW ops - SKCC which meets on various bands.
Check out http://www.skccgroup.com/opfreq.htm
They are mostly straight key operators so they are great for copy practice if nothing else - since they don't send very fast. Made a few QSOs with people in the group on 40 meters at 7.110 and they are very nice mostly older gentlemen.
Till next week
Tuesday, November 23, 2010
Tune HF Rig to 3.540 MHz or as otherwise directed by netcontrol
Each person checking in sends their own call sign 5 times: e.g. K4EV K4EV K4EV K4EV K4EV
Net control provides acknowledgment and signal report for every call sign heard
e.g. K4EV DE NY4G TNX FER CK IN UR RST 599 599 599 K
Stations copy net control signal reports and then sends both the copied RST and report to net control
e.g. NY4G DE K4EV R MY RST 599 UR RST 579 AR KN
Net Control asks for name and location
e.g. K4EV DE NY4G R PSE NAME? QTH? AR K
Stations send their names and locations
e.g. NY4G DE K4EV R NAME BRUCE BRUCE QTH GREER, SC GREER SC AR KN
Net Control Station Acknowledges and Initiates QSO Closing
e.g. K4EV DE NY4G R FB GUD TO MEET YOU BRUCE TNX FER QSO HPE CUL 73 SK K4EV DE NY4G K
Station send closing remarks
e.g. NY4G DE K4EV R CU AGN NXT WEEK TNX FER QSO 73 SK NY4G DE K4EV CL
QSY to FM 146.820 for Critique/Review by the Group and the Extra Class Question Review Portion
Saturday, November 20, 2010
A Cheat Sheet
You might find it helpful to use a cheat sheet that you can refer to when your mind suddenly goes blank. So here it is. Just fill in the blanks and replace NY4G with YOUR CALL and the other station’s call sign in the ______________.
Is this frequency in use?
QRL? (then LISTEN)
CQ CQ CQ DE NY4G NY4G K
Answering another station’s CQ with Signal Report
___________ DE NY4G NY4G UR RST (599 or 579 etc.) AR KN
After another station answer’s your CQ
__________ DE NY4G NY4G GM (GA, GE, GN) TNX CALL UR 559 (or 579, 549, etc) 559 QTH TRAVELERS REST, SC NAME ARIEL ARIEL HW? AR _____ DE NY4G KN
To end the QSO
____________ DE NY4G NY4G R _____________________________________________, OK TNX NICE QSO HPE CU AGN 73 GM SK _____________ DE NY4G K
If the other station initiates ending the QSO
____________DE NY4G R OK TNX NICE QSO HPE CUL VY 73 SK _________DE NY4G CL
What is the first action you should take if your digital message forwarding station
inadvertently forwards a communication that violates FCC rules?
A. Discontinue forwarding the communication as soon as you become aware of it
B. Notify the originating station that the communication does not comply with FCC
C. Notify the nearest FCC Field Engineer’s office
D. Discontinue forwarding all messages
E1A12 (A) [97.11]
If an amateur station is installed on board a ship or aircraft, what condition must
be met before the station is operated?
A. Its operation must be approved by the master of the ship or the pilot in command
of the aircraft
B. The amateur station operator must agree to not transmit when the main ship or
aircraft radios are in use
C. It must have a power supply that is completely independent of the main ship or
aircraft power supply
D. Its operator must have an FCC Marine or Aircraft endorsement on his or her amateur
E1A13 (B) [97.5]
When a US-registered vessel is in international waters, what type of FCC-issued
license or permit is required to transmit amateur communications from an on-board
A. Any amateur license with an FCC Marine or Aircraft endorsement
B. Any amateur license or reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee
C. Only General class or higher amateur licenses
D. An unrestricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit
E1B Station restrictions and special operations: restrictions on station location;
general operating restrictions, spurious emissions, control operator reimbursement;
antenna structure restrictions; RACES operations
E1B01 (D) [97.3]
Which of the following constitutes a spurious emission?
A. An amateur station transmission made at random without the proper call sign
B. A signal transmitted in a way that prevents its detection by any station other
than the intended recipient
C. Any transmitted bogus signal that interferes with another licensed radio station
D. An emission outside its necessary bandwidth that can be reduced or eliminated
without affecting the information transmitted
E1B02 (D) [97.13]
Which of the following factors might cause the physical location of an amateur
station apparatus or antenna structure to be restricted?
A. The location is in or near an area of political conflict, military maneuvers or
B. The location's geographical or horticultural importance
C. The location is in an ITU zone designated for coordination with one or more
D. The location is significant to our environment, American history, architecture, or
E1B03 (A) [97.13]
Within what distance must an amateur station protect an FCC monitoring facility from
A. 1 mile
B. 3 miles
C. 10 miles
D. 30 miles
E1B04 (C) [97.13, 1.1305-1.1319]
What must be done before placing an amateur station within an officially designated
wilderness area or wildlife preserve, or an area listed in the National Register of
A. A proposal must be submitted to the National Park Service
B. A letter of intent must be filed with the National Audubon Society
C. An Environmental Assessment must be submitted to the FCC
D. A form FSD-15 must be submitted to the Department of the Interior
E1B05 (B) [97.15]
What height restrictions apply to an amateur station antenna structure not close to a
public use airport unless the FAA is notified and it is registered with the FCC?
A. It must not extend more than 300 feet above average height of terrain surrounding
B. It must be no higher than 200 feet above ground level at its site
C. There are no height restrictions because the structure obviously would not be a
hazard to aircraft in flight
D. It must not extend more than 100 feet above sea level or the rim of the nearest
valley or canyon
E1B06 (A) [97.15]
Which of the following additional rules apply if you are installing an amateur
station antenna at a site within 20,000 feet of a public use airport?
A. You may have to notify the Federal Aviation Administration and register it with
B. No special rules apply if your antenna structure will be less than 300 feet in
C. You must file an Environmental Impact Statement with the EPA before construction
D. You must obtain a construction permit from the airport zoning authority
E1B07 (A) [97.15]
Whose approval is required before erecting an amateur station antenna located at or
near a public use airport if the antenna would exceed a certain height depending upon
the antenna’s distance from the nearest active runway?
A. The FAA must be notified and it must be registered with the FCC
B. Approval must be obtained from the airport manager
C. Approval must be obtained from the local zoning authorities
D. The FAA must approve any antenna structure that is higher than 20 feet
E1B08 (D) [97.121]
On what frequencies may the operation of an amateur station be restricted if its
emissions cause interference to the reception of a domestic broadcast station on a
receiver of good engineering design?
A. On the frequency used by the domestic broadcast station
B. On all frequencies below 30 MHz
C. On all frequencies above 30 MHz
D. On the interfering amateur service transmitting frequencies
Those who checked in
W4DJW - Dave
W5MFC - Mike
W4KA - Dave
KJ4RXY - Stephen
KJ4UHE - Laure
N4BDR - Tony
KG4FQG - Phil
Afterwards W4DJW and I had a short QSO and had some practice. Till next time.
Be ready to transmit your call signs and get your keys ready!!
Friday, November 19, 2010
E1A01 (D) [97.301, 97.305]
When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, which of the following displayed frequencies will result in a normal USB emission being within the band?
A. The exact upper band edge
B. 300 Hz below the upper band edge
C. 1 kHz below the upper band edge
D. 3 kHz below the upper band edge
ANSWER: When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, a displayed frequency of 3 kHz below the upper band edge will result in a normal USB emission being within the band. Note - The inner edge of the side band is 300 Hz away from the center carrier frequency and the outer edgel 2.8 kHz away - thus a center carrier 3 kHZ away will be totally be within the band with 0.2 kHz to spare.
E1A02 (D) [97.301, 97.305]
When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, which of the following displayed frequencies will result in a normal LSB emission being within the band?
A. The exact lower band edge
B. 300 Hz above the lower band edge
C. 1 kHz above the lower band edge
D. 3 kHz above the lower band edge
When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, a displayed frequency 3 kHz above the lower band edge carrier frequency display will result in a normal LSB emission being within the band. See above.
E1A03 (C) [97.301, 97.305]
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of phone signals, you hear a DX station's CQ on 14.349 MHz USB. Is it legal to return the call using upper sideband on the same frequency?
A. Yes, because the DX station initiated the contact
B. Yes, because the displayed frequency is within the 20 meter band
C. No, my sidebands will extend beyond the band edge
D. No, USA stations are not permitted to use phone emissions above 14.340 MHz
It is not legal to return the call using upper sideband on the same frequency because your sidebands will extend beyond the band edge.
14.349 MHz + 3 KHz = 14.352 MHz.
The band edge for 20 meters is 14.350 MHz therefore your signal would be out of band by 2 KHz
E1A04 (C) [97.301, 97.305]
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of phone signals, you hear a DX station's CQ on 3.601 MHz LSB. Is it legal to return the call using lower sideband on the same frequency?
A. Yes, because the DX station initiated the contact
B. Yes, because the displayed frequency is within the 75 meter phone band segment
C. No, my sidebands will extend beyond the edge of the phone band segment
D. No, USA stations are not permitted to use phone emissions below 3.610 MHz
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of phone signals, you hear a DX station's CQ on 3.601 MHz LSB. It is not legal to return the call using lower sideband on the same frequency because your sidebands will extend beyond the edge of the phone band segment.
3.601 MHz - 3 KHz = 3.598 MHz
The band edge for phone on 80 meters is 3.600 MHz; therefore your signal at 3.598 MHz would be out of the band by 2 KHz and in the RTTY and data segment of the 80 meter band
E1A05 (C) [97.305]
Which is the only amateur band that does not permit the transmission of phone or image emissions?
A. 160 meters
B. 60 meters
C. 30 meters
D. 17 meters
The 30 meter band is restricted to RTTY and data transmission only.
E1A06 (B) [97.303]
What is the maximum power output permitted on the 60 meter band?
A. 50 watts PEP effective radiated power relative to an isotropic radiator
B. 50 watts PEP effective radiated power relative to a dipole
C. 100 watts PEP effective radiated power relative to an isotropic radiator
D. 100 watts PEP effective radiated power relative to a dipole
You must do a calculation of transmitter power, antenna gain and line loss to determine your ERP. On the 60 meter band power is limited to 50 Watts ERP, (Effective Radiated Power) referred to a dipole antenna which includes antenna gain and the path loss or gain from the transceiver to antenna itself. If you had an antenna with +6 dB of gain over a dipole and a coaxial line loss of -3dB the maximum output allowed from the transmitter
would be 25 watts. Gain over dipole would be 6 dB -3dB Loss or 3db, therefore you would have to have a transmitter power of 3 db less than 50 watts, or 25 watts transmitter output power.
E1A07 (D) [97.303]
What is the only amateur band where transmission on specific channels rather than a range of frequencies is permitted?
A. 12 meter band
B. 17 meter band
C. 30 meter band
D. 60 meter band
The 60 meter band is the only amateur band where transmissions on specific channels rather than a range of frequencies is permitted.
E1A08 (C) [97.303]
What is the only emission type permitted to be transmitted on the 60 meter band by an amateur station?
B. RTTY Frequency shift keying
C. Single sideband, upper sideband only
D. Single sideband, lower sideband only
Upper sideband SSB is the only emission permitted to be transmitted on the 60 meter band by an amateur station.
E1A09 (A) [97.301]
Which frequency bands contain at least one segment authorized only to control operators holding an Amateur Extra Class operator license?
A. 80/75, 40, 20 and 15 meters
B. 80/75, 40, 20, and 10 meters
C. 80/75, 40, 30 and 10 meters
D. 160, 80/75, 40 and 20 meters
The 80/75, 40, 20 and 15 meter frequency bands contain at least one segment authorized only to control operators
holding an Amateur Extra Class operator license.
E1A10 (B) [97.219]
If a station in a message forwarding system inadvertently forwards a message that is in violation of FCC rules, who is primarily accountable for the rules violation?
A. The control operator of the packet bulletin board station
B. The control operator of the originating station
C. The control operators of all the stations in the system
D. The control operators of all the stations in the system not authenticating the source from which they accept communications
If a station in a message forwarding system inadvertently forwards a message that is in violation of FCC rules, the control operator of the originating station is primarily accountable for the rules violation.
Thursday, November 18, 2010
Coordinated between 146.820 FM and HF on 80m (CW portion of the Band)
Wait for Net Control to Start the Net
Check-In - Participants declare whether to participate or just listen
Listen for instructions on what frequency to tune to for the HF CW Portion
Basics of CW Operation - moderated by net control on FM
Sample QSOs (example to get the feel and rhythm) on HF
The Morse Alphabet on HF
Participants Check in using CW (as slow as necessary for good transmit)
Net Control calls CQ
Stations Check In using CW
Net Control Acknowledges Stations and Provides Signal Reports
Stations Report Back Signal Report Given and Gives Signal Report to Net Control
You are ready to make that first contact. Your palms may be sweating and your heart rate may be racing. That’s ok. We’ve all been there. The first time I called CQ I was very nervous. I didn’t think it was possible for fingers to have a stuttering problem but there I was, stuttering with my fingers. Gradually I relaxed and calmed down. The CQ’s flowed from my fingertips with fluidity before sailing skyward. “Hey, this is really fun,” I thought to myself. Suddenly, the inevitable happened; somebody actually answered! The anxiety returned. “Now, what do I do?” Here is some help with establishing that first contact.
Let’s suppose you’re tuning across the bands and you hear a station calling CQ. The station seems to be sending at a speed you can copy: CQ CQ CQ DE W5MFC K
To answer W5MFC you just send the following: W5MFC DE (your callsign – lets use mine, NY4G, for our examples) AR
That’s all there is to it. AR is the letters A and R sent with no spaces in between, a procedural signal that means “end of message” or “over.” If the band is noisy or you are running low power, you may want to repeat your call sign twice like so: W5MFC DE NY4G NY4G AR
This is a ‘1x2’. The other station’s call sent once, and yours sent twice. This allows the other station double-check to make sure they got your call right.
If W5MFC was able to copy you, that station will then come back with something like:
NY4G DE W5MFC TNX FER CALL UR RST 559 IN…
If W5MFC only copied part of your call sign, you may hear one of the following. The station may or may not add DE W5MFC depending on the situation:
QRZ? (Who’s calling me?)
? ? (Who’s there?)
KC? (KC something….didn’t get the rest of your call sign.)
OBU? (Got the suffix, but I missed the prefix)
In this case, just send your call sign again.
If the band seems to be in good shape, but nobody is calling CQ, you can do the following:
1. Find a frequency that seems to be clear, and listen for a few seconds. Listening is very important.
2. If you don’t hear anything, send QRL? and listen for a bit more. Make sure you listen slightly up and down from your transmitting frequency as well. QRL is a Q signal that means this frequency is in use. When you send QRL? you are asking if the frequency is in use. If somebody comes back with C, YES, or QRL, then move to another frequency so you don’t interfere. No further response is needed.
3. If you did not hear a response, send QRL? again and listen again. Some stations may take a bit to respond.
4. Still nothing? You can assume the frequency is clear. Immediately send your CQ while the frequency is still open.
The 3x2 CQ call seems to work well for most situations. Call CQ three times, and then send your call twice: CQ CQ CQ DE NY4G NY4G K
The final K at the end means you’re inviting any station to answer you.
After calling CQ, listen, listen, listen. Listen slightly up and down in case the station trying to answer you is slightly off frequency. You can miss a return call if you are not listening carefully. If you hear nothing, send another 3x2 CQ call again, and listen. Repeat until either somebody answers or you want to try in another spot. Pretty easy, huh?
The 10x2x3 CQ call (CQ sent 10 times followed by your call sign twice, sent three times in a row) is seldom productive. Normally when stations hear this, they will keep moving up or down the band, and you will be scratching your head wondering why nobody is answering your CQ: CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ DE KC0OBU KC0OBU CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ DE NY4G NY4G CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ DE NY4G NY4G K
Basically there are three parts to a QSO: The introduction, the middle, and the conclusion. Almost sounds like a term paper. Let’s take a look at each of these parts.
Once a CQ is answered, the stations first exchange three important pieces of information: RST (a signal report), QTH (location), and Name. So let’s suppose I am calling CQ and WA3XYZ answers me. I would then send something like this:
W5MFC DE NY4G GM (GA, GE, GN) TNX CALL UR 559 (579,549, etc) 559 IN TR, SC TR, SC NAME ARIEL ARIEL HW? AR W5MFC DE NY4G KN
First I send the other station’s call, then DE (which means from) and then my call sign. Then I say good morning (GM), afternoon (GA), evening (GE), or night (GN), whichever is appropriate. Next I say thanks for the call (TNX CALL) and give the RST signal report (UR 559. I then send my QTH or location followed by my name. You can send ‘QTH’ instead of ‘IN’. But don’t send ‘MY QTH IS’ because that would be redundant….sort of like saying ‘MY MY LOCATION IS IS’.
‘HW?’ is short for ‘How are you copying me?’. Then I send AR (Over or End of Transmission), W5MFC DE NY4G (so other stations listening will know who we are) and KN which says go ahead to a specific station, which in this example is WA3XYZ.
The other station will then reply back with its information by sending something like the following: NY4G DE W5MFC R GM ARIEL NICE TO MEET U UR RST 579 579 QTH GREER, SC GREER, SC NAME MIKE MIKE HW? AR NY4G DE W5MFC KN
The R sent after the initial call signs means that the other station copied EVERYTHING that you sent. Don’t send R and then ask the other station to repeat part of the information that was sent. It’s bad form.
If you need the other station to repeat something send ‘PSE RPT NAME’, or ‘RST’, or ‘QTH’, etc. You can also send something like ‘NAME?’ or’RST?’ in your next transmission, and the other station should understand.
Now, you chat back and forth about whatever you want: the weather, sports, your rigs, antennas, etc., using a format like the following: W5MFC DE NY4G R blah, blah, blah, AR W5MFC DE NY4G KN
Then the other station has a turn: NY4G DE W5MFC R blah, blah, blah, AR NY4G DE W5MFC KN
Technically, you don’t have to send both call signs with each transmission. Some stations just send BK (back to you) and the end of a transmission and then legally identify the station every 10 minutes. Other stations will send both calls with each transmission so those listening will know who they are.
To end the QSO just send something like: W5MFC DE NY4G R blah, blah, blah, OK MIKE TNX NICE QSO HPE CUL 73 GM SK NY4G DE W5MFC K
I thank Phil for a nice QSO, say hope to see you later (HPE CUL), send best wishes (73), and good morning (GM). The SK procedure signal means that’s all I have. Similar to AR except it is only used in the final transmission from your station. Phil will then send his final transmission: NY4G DE W5MFC R FB DAN TNX QSO 73 SK KCNY4G DE W5MFC CL
The CL means that Phil is going to be closing his station and won’t be answering any more calls. Phil could also end his call with a “dit dit”. I would respond with a single dit.
Ending a QSO with the dit dit – dit, or the “shave and a haircut…two bits” is a friendly way of acknowledging that the QSO has ended and you enjoyed the chat. It started back before anyone can remember with one Ham sending ‘shave and a haircut’ – dahdididahdit - and the other station completing it with ‘two bits’ – dit dit. It has shortened over the decades to stations sending ‘dit dit’ and ‘dit’’.
Please don’t fall into the habit of pluralizing. There is no need to send “73s”. 73 by itself means “best wishes”; it is not proper to send 73s or ‘best wisheses’
Another tip to remember is that most Procedural Signs (like QTH) already mean phrases, and are intended to reduce the amount of sending you need to do to make your point. You don’t need to use extra words when using prosigns like QTH. QTH PA is sufficient, not MY QTH IS....
A Cheat Sheet
You might find it helpful to use a cheat sheet that you can refer to when your mind suddenly goes blank. So here it is. Just fill in the blanks and replace W5MFC with the other station’s call sign.
Is this frequency in use?
QRL? (then LISTEN)
CQ CQ CQ DE _____________ K
Answering another station’s CQ
W5MFC DE ___________ AR
When another station answer’s your CQ
W5MFC DE __________ GM (GA, GE, GN) TNX CALL UR 559 (or 579, 549, etc) 559 IN ______________, __ ______________, __ NAME _______ _______ HW? AR W5MFC DE __________ KN
To end the QSO
W5MFC DE __________ R blah, blah, blah, OK TNX NICE QSO HPE CUL VY 73 GM SK W5MFC DE __________K
If the other station initiates ending the QSO
W5MFC DE __________ R OK TNX NICE QSO HPE CUL VY 73 SK W5MFC DE __________
A Final Word about Speed
Accuracy transcends speed. Most operators would rather copy slower accurate code with proper spacing than code sent fast with uneven spacing and lots of mistakes. Speed will come with practice.
Rule of thumb for spacing: The space between letters should be about as long as a dash – which is equal to 3 dits. The space between words should be about as long as two dashes (technically, 7 dits, but it’s easier to estimate ‘two dashes’ since you DON’T want to start counting). Keep in mind that the person on the other end has to decipher your sending, so make it as clear for them as you can. Spacing is just as important as the letters themselves. Without spacing, it’s all gibberish! Space between your letters, and pause ever so slightly between words.It is asking for trouble to call CQ with a speed faster than you can comfortably copy, because that will probably be the speed somebody will use when answering you. Don’t get frustrated if the other station doesn’t slow down for you, even after you have sent PSE QRS (please send slower). The other station may be pressed for time, in the heat battle during a contest, or has been operating at a fast speed for so long that they have difficulty copying or sending slower. You also need to be courteous. Do not assume that everyone who does not slow down is being a jerk. If you cannot copy the other station, just say SRI TOO FAST, send them a 73 and move on. You are sure to find somebody that you can work.
Thursday, November 11, 2010
Idea1: Use the 820 machine for he Extra Class Content and CW Coordination
Idea2: Use the 80m CW band for the CW training in the evening